Cyanide

 

Standard Test Methods for Cyanides in Water

-By ASTM D2036

Scope:

Cyanide is highly toxic. Regulations have been established to require the monitoring of cyanide in industrial and domestic wastes and in surface waters. Test Method D is applicable for natural water and clean metal finishing or heat treatment effluents. It may be used for process control in wastewater treatment facilities providing its applicability has been validated by Test Method B or C. The spot test can be used to detect cyanide and thiocyanate in water or wastewater, and to approximate its concentration.

Method List

Method 245.1
Hold Time28 days
PreservationFor total mercury, preserve samples with (1+1) nitric acid, and hold for 16 hours at a pH < 2 prior to analysis.
Sample Volume250mL HDPE bottle
Collection MethodGrab sampling
InstrumentationM-8000 QuickTrace Mercury Analyzer
Method Refernce245.1

 

Analyte List

AnalyteFormulaCAS Number
MercuryHg7439-97-6

* The typical detection limits and analytes are displayed for this particular method. Please contact Specialty Analytical if other analytes or detection limits are required in addition to the Mercury Analyte List.

Available Cyanide by Ligand Exchange and Flow Injection Analysis (FIA)

-By EPA OAI-1677

Scope:

This method is used for determining available cyanide in water and wastewater by ligand exchange, flow injection analysis, and amperometric detection. This method is used in the USEPA’s data gathering and monitoring programs associated with the Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, and Safe Drinking Water Act.

Cyanide ion (CN–), hydrogen cyanide in water (HCN[aq]), and cyano-complexes of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury, nickel, and silver can be determined by this method.

Method List

Method 245.7
Hold Time90 days
PreservationHCl
Sample Volume250 mL
Collection MethodGrab
InstrumentationCVAF
Method RefernceEPA 245.7

 

Analyte List

AnalyteFormulaCAS Number
MercuryHg7439-97-6

* The typical detection limits and analytes are displayed for this particular method. Please contact Specialty Analytical if other analytes or detection limits are required in addition to the Mercury Analyte List.

Standard Test Method for Determination of Free Cyanide in Water and Wastewater by Microdiffusion

-By ASTM D4282

Scope:

This test method covers the determination of free cyanides in waters and wastewaters. Free cyanide is here defined as the cyanide which diffuses as cyanide (HCN), at room temperature, from a solution at pH 6. 2. This test method does not include complexes that resist dissociation, such as hexacyanoferrates and gold cyanide, nor does it include thiocyanate and cyanohydrin. This test method may be applied to water and wastewater samples containing free cyanide from 10 to 150 μg/L. Greater concentrations may be determined by appropriate dilution. This test method has been fully validated by collaborative testing as specified by Practice D2777 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

Method List

Method 245.7
Hold Time90 days
PreservationHCl
Sample Volume250 mL
Collection MethodGrab
InstrumentationCVAF
Method RefernceEPA 245.7

 

Analyte List

AnalyteFormulaCAS Number
MercuryHg7439-97-6

* The typical detection limits and analytes are displayed for this particular method. Please contact Specialty Analytical if other analytes or detection limits are required in addition to the Mercury Analyte List.

TOTAL AND AMENABLE CYANIDE: DISTILLATION

-By EPA 9010C

Scope:

This method is a reflux-distillation procedure used to extract soluble cyanide salts and many insoluble cyanide complexes from wastes and leachates. It is based on the decomposition of nearly all cyanides by a reflux distillation procedure using a strong acid and a magnesium catalyst. Cyanide, in the form of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) is purged from the sample and captured into an alkaline scrubber solution. The concentration of cyanide in the scrubber solution is then determined by Method 9014 or Method 9213. This method may be used as a reflux-distillation procedure for both total cyanide and cyanide amenable to chlorination. The “reactive” cyanide content of a waste is not determined by this method. Refer to 40 CFR 261.23
for information on the characteristic of reactivity.

The cyanide, as hydrocyanic acid (HCN), is released from samples containing cyanide by means of a reflux-distillation operation under acidic conditions and absorbed in a scrubber containing sodium hydroxide solution. The cyanide concentration in the absorbing solution is then determined colorimetrically or titrametrically by Method 9014 or by ion-selective electrode by Method 9213.

Method List

Method 245.7
Hold Time90 days
PreservationHCl
Sample Volume250 mL
Collection MethodGrab
InstrumentationCVAF
Method RefernceEPA 245.7

 

Analyte List

AnalyteFormulaCAS Number
MercuryHg7439-97-6

* The typical detection limits and analytes are displayed for this particular method. Please contact Specialty Analytical if other analytes or detection limits are required in addition to the Mercury Analyte List.

Standard Practice for Determination of Total and Available Cyanide in Solid Waste and Soil after Alkaline Extraction

-By ASTM D8273

Scope:

Cyanide and hydrogen cyanide are highly toxic. Regulations have been established requiring the measurement of cyanide in soil and solid waste samples. This practice is also useful for performing material balances to account for the distribution of cyanides in cyanidation products from metallurgical processes. This practice is applicable to the determination of available or total water soluble, or both, and water insoluble cyanides in soil and solid waste.

This practice is used for the determination of total or available cyanide in solid waste, sediment and soil samples after alkaline extraction. Simple cyanide (CN) salts of group 1 and group 2 (alkali and alkaline earth) metals; soluble alkali and alkaline earth salts of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury, nickel, silver, and iron cyanide complexes; and insoluble metal-metal cyanide complexes, such as Prussian blue, are quantitatively recovered. Gold, platinum group metals and cobalt cyanide complexes are not recovered during analysis.

Free cyanide cannot be determined due to the change of equilibrium conditions during the extraction process. Cyanide complexes are extracted into an alkaline solution as described in this practice. Measure the total cyanide using Test Methods D7511 or D7284. Measure the available cyanide using Test Method D6888.

Method List

Method 245.7
Hold Time90 days
PreservationHCl
Sample Volume250 mL
Collection MethodGrab
InstrumentationCVAF
Method RefernceEPA 245.7

 

Analyte List

AnalyteFormulaCAS Number
MercuryHg7439-97-6

* The typical detection limits and analytes are displayed for this particular method. Please contact Specialty Analytical if other analytes or detection limits are required in addition to the Mercury Analyte List.

Standard Test Method for Total Cyanide in Water by Micro Distillation followed by Flow Injection Analysis with Gas Diffusion Separation and Amperometric Detection

-By ASTM D7284

Scope:

Cyanide and hydrogen cyanide are highly toxic. Regulations have been established to require the monitoring of cyanide in industrial and domestic wastes and surface waters. This test method is applicable for natural waters, industrial wastewaters and effluents.

This test method is used to determine the concentration of total cyanide in an aqueous wastewater or effluent. This test method detects the cyanides that are free (HCN and CN) and strong-metal-cyanide complexes that dissociate and release free cyanide when refluxed under strongly acidic conditions. This test method may not be applicable to process solutions from precious metals mining operations. This procedure is applicable over a range of approximately 2 to 500 μg/L (parts per billion) total cyanide. Higher concentrations can be measured with sample dilution or lower injection volume. The determinative step of this test method utilizes flow injection with amperometric detection based on Test Method D6888.

Prior to analysis, samples must be distilled with a micro-distillation apparatus described in this test method or with a suitable cyanide distillation apparatus specified in Test Methods D2036. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

Method List

Method 245.7
Hold Time90 days
PreservationHCl
Sample Volume250 mL
Collection MethodGrab
InstrumentationCVAF
Method RefernceEPA 245.7

 

Analyte List

AnalyteFormulaCAS Number
MercuryHg7439-97-6

* The typical detection limits and analytes are displayed for this particular method. Please contact Specialty Analytical if other analytes or detection limits are required in addition to the Mercury Analyte List.

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